السبت، 26 يوليو، 2014


Displays Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson in their book «Why do states fail?» Story of the British Renaissance in the late seventeenth century, and how Britain was able to turn into a great empire thriving sun does not set them. 
Britain was before the seventeenth century economic system ruled by political benefit and privileges to a small group of citizens, and the elite monopoly over everything, and the King has vast wealth of behind franchising! The parliament does not take place only at the invitation of the king, but the tyranny and monopoly of these led to the revolution (1688), which is called in the literature of British «glorious», led by Parliament, and the isolation of King James II and installed his daughter, Mary Queen, and announced that the Bill of Rights in 1689, which stipulates that the authority of the King derived from the people through the elected parliament, and to ensure the freedom of opinion, and restricting tax. 
Before the Renaissance British were Spain had got up from the Union of the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile, and arrived in Columbus to the American continent, claiming subject of Queen Isabella and Ferdinand, who Mola journey, and evolved into the Kingdom of Spain through a series of relationships intermarriage between the sons of kings Europeans and their daughters, helped by the discovery of precious metals in the Confederations new to strengthen Kingdom of Spain and richness, and then resorted to the kings of Spain in order to plug the continued confiscation of funds to the Arabs and the Jews and their expulsion from Spain. 
The Spanish model is a clear example of how to inflict tyranny damage the institutions of economic and How does the absence of protection of the rights and ownership to the economic collapse, and in contrast, can be seen to the economic success of the British after the Glorious Revolution 1688 revolution, which was against monopoly and privileges fired opportunities for economic participation, and grew up a vast market for trade across Atlantic, and formed a new class of merchants and adventurers. 
At a time when tyranny to anarchy and rebellion in Spain and the French occupation during the reign of Napoleon, led freedoms in Britain to the central state actors, turning the monarchy of Spain to the sale of privileges and immunities as were the British state sponsored trade and manufacturing, and dropped the urban population (cities) in the Spain from 20 percent to 10 percent, and the English cities grow and attract traders and investors from outside and Spain in particular. 
In Russia, Austria and Hungary added to prevent the neglect of new technology such as the railway, which gave the opportunity for Germany that occupies large areas of Central Europe, and Habsburg empires fell and Bourbon, serfdom systems are no longer able to withstand the wave in the industry! One of the kings of Habsburg said: «I do not need to scientists! When set off a wave of labor laws and public rights and social welfare, said one political leaders: how we will judge the masses when they learn and enjoy their rights and become a political force? The refusal of Francis I (1708 - 1765) Emperor of Austria to develop the industry as it will improve the lives of the poor and make them supporters of the opposition, and threaten the status of traditional elites, he had wanted to agrarian society traditionally led by a minority of elites, and opposed the emperors to build factories or incision Railway, because it encourages the revolution, and undermine the existing feudal system. 
Were not Austria, Hungary and alone in the face of the industry and the fear of them, Vambratoria czars in Russia has made its best in order to in order to maintain the economy and farming communities based system «serfs» Aboudi, where half the population is employed in the territory of the nobles and subjected to injustice and slavery, but betting on them in tables Gambling! Or changed their hounds, and their children were taken away forcibly, and subjected to sanctions, skin and sexual exploitation, and they commit suicide wholesale. 
Nikolai saw the Czar of Russia in the mid-nineteenth century in the manufacturing revolution swear on the face as long as able to breathe! In his speech to the industrial companies in the industrial exhibition Moscow said: Keep in mind that the industry can turn into a blessing of evil, Workers are turning to the danger to themselves and to their masters! 
In the 1848 hit Europe for a series of revolutions, and in response to that issued the Czar of Russia instructions and orders to prevent workers gathered, and put strict limits on the plants, and do not allow the construction of new plants only under restrictions and conditions difficult, especially after the spread of the textile industry, dyeing and mining, and the ban on cotton yarn frankly , and interpreted to prevent the railroad that he does not need them, and they encourage non-essential travel! 
It seems clear today that progress is based on the form of the industrial revolution and the subsequent series of major developments in the resources and access to the knowledge economy and technology. But why did not benefit from the technical Nations and many countries have also benefited other countries? The answer is almost too obvious and complex in the lack of interaction between the stage and the right resources, or the failure to answer the obvious question, and automatic: How do you respond to states and communities for the stage? How to pick up a moment or opportunity? In the time that I picked up several countries printing techniques in the spread of education and the development of professions and trades, inventions, handled by states and other communities to reject and hostile, and we still read even today holds the project Mohammad Ali modernization in Egypt of all evils and sins and criticizes Tahtawi in that project to translate and print the reason underdevelopment and defeats! 
In fact, most countries in the world and the elite dominant quoted technical and modern systems of developed countries, but it can be seen that the failed ones remained manages modernization and technology so that the benefit of a minority of people, any technique that produces backwardness and update the originator of poverty, ignorance and disease, or for the transfer of the genius of failure. This can be seen in many failed states.

0 التعليقات:

إرسال تعليق

التُصنُيُفاتُ

Unordered List

أعلانكً

المًشاركُاتُ

أخٌرُ المُشاُركاُتُ

ضعُ أعلاتكُ هناُ

Text Widget