السبت، 26 يوليو، 2014



The Arab civilization in the island of Sicily crucial episode in the history of civilizations that witnessed this island, such as the Phoenician civilization and Greek and Romanian. This does not come from the importance of this civilization that lasted List and thriving in Sicily after the demise of Arab rule at the hands of the Normans, but because it was also an important factor contributing to the renaissance of modern European. 

Arab conquest 
Was the Arab conquest of the island of Sicily - which was under Byzantine rule - by Aghlabids, in the reign of Prince Aghlabide increase in 827 AD. He was the hero of this Open Assad Ibn al-Faqih (d. 828 AD). And established the Arabs, during their rule of the island, which lasted about two and a half of the time (827 - 1091 AD) civilization flourished gradually in the fields of cultural, administrative, economic and technical. It was, in fact, a combination of Arab civilization in the Levant and Morocco on the one hand and the achievements of Arab Sicily and creativity of the hand and was inherited from the civilizations that came to the island from the third hand. 

A key factor that enabled the Arabs of Sicily establishment of this civilization was the policy of tolerance practiced in the rule of races and peoples of different cultures and religions, where the Arabs were allowed to exercise their freedom of religious customs and its own laws. He says one of the heads of the monastery of "Saint Catherine", in the Sicilian capital, "Palermo," The Christian clergy were days Arabs are free to practice their religious duties and did not affect their churches bad. 

Norman conquest 
Snatched from the hands of the Normans of Sicily Arabs, and helped them in that what was going on in the island of divisions and conflicts between Arab princes, so that some of them, like son Althmna, did not hesitate to ask for help from the Normans against his own people. 

Palermo entered the Normans in 1072 AD, but not complete, but open them to the island in 1091. And punishing rule of Sicily four of the mighty rulers of the Normans are: first, Roger (d. 1101) and Roger II (d. 1154) and William I (d. 1166 AD) and William II (d. 1189). 

It is interesting to consider that there is almost settle the Normans in Sicily so impressed civilization left behind by their ancestors where Arabs and declared protected her and showed their desire to benefit from them. Normans stop any victors in front of the respect and appreciation of Arab civilization helpless. 

This reminds us of how the Romans underwent the victors of the civilization of their ancestors Greeks helpless. 
The question that should be answered is: What are the factors that made the Norman conquerors taking this positive attitude of the civilization of their ancestors Arabs in Sicily? 

It seems that the answer lies in the following factors: 
First, the policy of religious tolerance adopted by the Normans in their rule of the island. It was inhabited Sicily when the Normans opened: the Arabs, Greeks and Latins and others. The Normans realized that the leadership of these peoples and successfully achieve a balance between the interests and ensure the safety of the state, requires the adoption of a policy of religious tolerance and observance of the customs and traditions of these peoples. He was the first to lay the foundations of this policy is to Roger first, and walked his sons and grandsons to his approach. Roger has warned that compulsion of his subjects Muslims to convert to Christianity, and to prevent bishops of his soldiers to evangelize Muslims. The Idrisi (d. 1166 AD) of this policy when he talked about the reign of Roger first, saying: "And when he ordered her to him and settled a queen bed publishing the biography of Justice in its people and agreed with them their religion and rituals and security in themselves and their money and their parents and their offsprings." The tolerance of this approach helped the Normans to accept the Arab civilization, absorb and benefit from them. 

Second, the promotion of science and scientists, with a passion for the Kings Normans science and knowledge, and scientists had their respect and encourage them. This Idrisi for Roger II says he "invented inventions strange ... unless preceded by one of the kings." It also was a lover of scholars and tends to Majalsthm, was Idrissi comes to passengers if the mule has become stepped down from his council has Faiby Vijlsan together. As William II, accompanied by passionate men of science, especially doctors and astrologers of them, even when he reminded him that a doctor or mine passed his country is Bamsakh and give him money and even Erzaca Islah from home. 
This passion for science and his family made ​​them appreciate the Arab civilization and accept the right of the achievements. 

Third, the superiority of Arab civilization which inherited the Normans for their ancestors Arabs of Sicily on the one hand and the weakness of the civilization of the Normans themselves on the other hand the form in turn is an important factor encouraged the Normans to embrace the culture of the Arabs, it is the nature of civilization, the stronger it imposes its achievements, and spontaneously, to the owners of civilization weaker. When the Normans from Norfaye migrated to the southern Italian atheist in the early tenth century, they were just mercenaries serving their swords for those who pay them more than political and religious forces to the conflict there. But when Sicily was opened in front of them, either to maintain the mentality of gangs or building a civilized country, they took the second option and adopted the achievements of civilization, the most prosperous and advanced civilization on the island which is Arabic. 

Fourth: not subject tiles in Norman Sicily to incite the papacy and the bishops and the Inquisition against the Arabs and Islam, as was the case at the time in Italy, Spain and other European countries. Relations between the Normans and the Papacy began a hostile, but led Pope Leo IX in 1053 an army against the Normans, but was defeated and signed by the Pope himself in Norman families. Therefore, the lack of religious incitement tiles in Norman against Arabs and Muslims contributed to the Normans Iqbal on Arab civilization without religious currents counter. 

Fifth, the friendly relations that have existed between the kings of the Normans and the masses of Arabs and Muslims in Sicily facilitated the transmission of a lot of aspects of Arab civilization to among the Normans, Tolerance, justice and respect for the customs of the Arabs and their traditions .. creation of the kings of the Normans respect and love among the Arabs of Sicily, then I'm the air to say about King Roger It is the second "Akram Muslims and their closeness and prevent them Franks and loved him." And also not surprised when we read that the Arabs of Sicily have shown grief over the death of the eldest son of Roger II and Rthah their poets, even Muslim women in Palermo wore black and grew their hair saddened him and Altfven around the royal palace Nahbat and went Khademathen in the streets Tertln pieces of lamentation. 

  As shown Ibn Jubayr particularly impressed magnanimity of King William II when Muslims pay to the poor owners of ships that were traveling in the port of Messina. 

These human relations between the two parties was one of the important channels of transmission of Arab civilization to Norman Sicily. 

The above factors combined, and others, contributed to the drafting of the positive attitude adopted by the Normans towards the civilization which they inherited from their ancestors Arabs. Based on the foregoing, it can monitor some of the manifestations of Arab civilization, which has been active in Norman Sicily in a number of fields, including: 

First: the tiles Norman: 
I baptized tiles Norman Sicily dye Arab-Islamic, has been assigned the Normans lot of senior positions in the tiles to the talent of Arab Muslims, and stressed this fact I'm the air in talking about the court of King Roger II, who "wire through the kings of the Muslims of Ganaúb and Asalahih and Gandria and others. . ", also confirmed that too, traveler Ibn Jubair, who visited Sicily the days of King William II, when he said:" like theirs this wondrous in good conduct and use of Muslims and take the boys Majabeb, a lot of confidence to Muslims and residents to them in the conditions of the important of his labors so that A man in his kitchen beholder of Muslims. "

It was the king's guard Norman includes a large number of Arabs and Muslims as well as his guard cavalry Normans. The laws and decisions that were issued tiles Norman was in three languages​​: Arabic, Latin, Greek, and was marked King Norman Arabic, for example, was a sign of Roger II and his son, William I "Thank God, thank you for Onamh" and a sign of William II "Thank God the right to praise" and also took three Norman kings of Arab titles, was the title of Roger II "Moataz Bellah," and the title of William I, "Hadi order of God" and the title of William II "Almstaz God." 

Also, many of the Arabic terminology has been in use in the administration, such as Norman: The Prince and the Court, the judge and the book, it was accepted that the Latin monasteries vassal swears an oath of allegiance on the Quran. 

In summary, the Kings Normans were Icbhon kings of Muslims in all aspects relating to show pomp King and prestige and therefore did not exaggerate a historian when he said of Roger II, for example, that he was "the property of their Latino in tile east" or as he said historian else about the king himself that he had "authority baptized. "

Second: In the Army, Navy: 
Began recruiting Arab Muslims in the military since the days of Roger Norman first, but soon became the basic army battalions consisting of Arab soldiers under the command of Arab Muslims, as Arabs, Normans quote a lot of martial arts and methods. The army has also included military engineers Norman Arab Muslims, where those making catapults and siege towers animation and building fortifications cities. On the other hand the Normans succeeded in building a naval fleet made ​​them great victories, especially in North Africa. He was the first man who took over as Admiral Abdul Rahman, a Christian Arab, who made ​​a name Igriqia: Christodoulos, then his successor in this position is another Arabic George of Antioch, which was organized by the Marine Norman Roger II days. After his death, took command of the fleet Norman Philip, a third Arabic. As a large number of Marines from the Norman-Arab Muslims also. 

Third, in the field of management: 
Roger kept the first administrative and financial system that existed in the days of the Arab Peninsula, has kept most of the Arab staff, experienced and integrity in the administration Norman. It is certain that the Normans Aguetpsoa three collections of Arab descent, namely: 
1 - Office of the Ombudsman: which raises the oppressed complaints and was headed by Norman King himself. He says I'm the air for Roger II "and make him lift the Office of the Ombudsman a complaint to the oppressed Fancefhm even from his son." 
2 - Office of style: who was overseeing the labs that manufacture clothing Ttrzha property and gold. 
3 - Office of investigation: who was responsible for the financial management of the state and Norman keeps records of land and Alaqtaat slaves and their employees. The records were recorded in Arabic. 

Fourth, in the field of economic life: 
Historical references speak for a lot of industries that have remained Arab List and prosperous era in Norman. For example, there was a silk factory and the Institute for embroidery near the royal palace in Palermo. This was a clothing factory prepares Norman kings and Ttrisaha, especially fancy dresses that Toshi inscriptions in Arabic and Latin. It is the clothes that still lingers to this plant now mantle Norman King Roger II worn by a king in his coronation ceremony in Palermo in 1130 AD. He had made ​​textiles Arabic name Abdullah, is made of heavy silk scarlet painted by a palm tree bear fruit gold, and on both sides of the image hits the lion talons sentences. The fees were embroidered with gold, surrounded by thousands of pearls and three Yakōtat great. It was written in Arabic, the tissues on the edge of the cloak phrases containing pray for the king Roger II to be loved and lived at the height of glory and realized that their hopes and submerge happiness throughout the days of his life. He also wrote the place and time making the abaya as follows: "Made in the capital of Sicily in the year 528 AH." 

As for agriculture With the wars between Arabs and Normans of Sicily has caused reported damage to agriculture and farmers and irrigation, but agriculture continued renaissance witnessed by the days of Arab rule of the island. It is known that the Arabs introduced to a lot of crops such as cotton, sugar cane, olive and palm trees, oranges, peanuts, bananas and saffron ... etc.. Arabs also set up an extensive network of canals and channels that its effects are still to this day. As has been most of the trade, the days of the Normans, the hands of the Arabs. 

  Although traders Italian cities, have received trade concessions on the island by the Norman kings, but that did not diminish the activity of Arab traders in Sicily and the Mediterranean world. Ibn Jubayr confirmed this by saying that "the markets they inhabited their dealers in. ..". It should be noted that the currency issued by the kings of the Normans in Sicily were influenced by currency Fatimid in shape and value, and included the writings of Arab and Latin and Greek and carried the Islamic and Christian symbols. 

Fifth, in the field of architecture: 
With architecture in Sicily Norman holds the Arab-Muslim character, has resided in Norman kings of Sicily palaces built by their ancestors Arabs, such as the Palace "fresh sea" in Palermo. It also built new palaces built by them Architects Arabs in Palermo along the lines of the Arab-Islamic-style mansion, such as "dear", which was built in the reign of William I and the Palace "dome", which was built in the reign of William II. And when he visited the Ibn Jubayr Sicily saw palaces of Arab palaces, which still exist, near the capital, two Saad Palace and the Palace of Jafar. It also continued the Sicilian cities containing mosques, baths, hotels and luxury buildings constructed on the Arab-style and decorated with precious marble and mosaic thriving. It shares Architects Muslim Arabs in the construction of churches and monasteries and Zinoha Arab mosaics. 

Sixth: Arab Women in the Covenant Norman: 
Women played Arab cultural role in society Norman, Vozaaaha spread among women Normans, and confirms this fact Ibn Jubayr said: "Ze or Christian in this city (Palermo) Uniforms Muslim women, Vsahat tongues Mmelthvat Mentkabbat, they go out in this holiday-mentioned (and that was rejoicing the birth of Jesus Christ) has been the enactment of silk garments doctrine and Althven wonderful quilts and Antqubn Negev and colorful Antaln moccasins aureus and Przn for all carriers Knaúshen Accessories Muslims of exercise and Altkhaddb and Altatr. "Also, a lot of Christian women in the tile Norman converted to Islam under the influence of Muslim women who work in the court. "

Seventh, in cultural and scientific fields: 
And despite the fact that I'm the air confirms that a large number of scholars, writers and poets, Arab Muslims had left Sicily, after the takeover of the Normans it, to Spain and Africa, and Egypt, such as: Ibn sector (d. 1121 AD) and Ibn stoker (d. 1122 AD) and Ibn Hamdis (d. 1133 AD), however, the culture of Arabs and continued to pursue their days Normans in Sicily, where he remained mosque play a critical role in religious studies, linguistic and literary. The Arabic language continued to prevail in the island in the Covenant Norman along with Latin and Greek, but that a number of the Norman kings, the likes of William I and II, they know how to read, write and speak Arabic. As well as the movement flourished translation from Arabic into Latin in Norman Sicily, and was the highlight of Prince Eugene translators who translated from Arabic into Latin some literature such as the book "optics" for his "Ptolemy" also contributed to the translation of the book "Panchatantra". And entered the era in Sicily Norman wrote many Arab instance, King Roger II evoked a large number of works of Arab geographers such as al-Masoudi Khrdazbh and the son and the son and the son of virgin Hawqal Yacoubi and others. 

The scholars and poets Muslim Arabs who remained in Sicily Norman, and tomorrow they would great with the Kings Normans, then mention them: Ibn Zafar, who was a scholar in grammar, language, religion, and held the post of senior State Norman, Mohamed Benaissa, who was a world engineering and the stars, and the son of a teacher , who was a scientist and skillful in medicine and others. The poets who lived under the Normans and staged poems praise them then mention them: Abdul Rahman and Abdul Rahman Alotarapinche Albthre, and Umar Bin Hassan Bin Siraj Ahmad and Ibn Bashron and others. It should be noted that the lyric that prevailed in the era Norman Sicily was mixed with Arabic songs scattered among Arab Muslims in Palermo. 

There is no doubt he was aware of the geography of the leading science that flourished at the hands of the Arabs in Sicily Norman. It is known that Roger II had been called to his court Moroccan geographer al-Sharif al-Idrisi, and reunited with all honors. Idrissi and completed under the auspices of the King and encouraged three scientific achievements are: 
1 - making tablets (panels) circular of pure silver and engraved with the map of the known world at the time Boqalima and gulfs and seas and rivers ... etc..
2 - Drawing a set of maps of the world on paper superiority in accuracy and clarity of the famous map of Ptolemy. 
3 - A book entitled "Nuzhat breakthrough in prospects" who knew the book Alrojara, an explanation as stated in silver surround it, which are carved the world map. Idrisi also put another book on the geography of King William I, entitled "Rod intimacy and self-outing" and the fact that the work done by Idrissi, under the auspices of the Norman kings, was a turning point in the evolution of science and geography make Idrissi greatest geographers in the Middle Ages. 

As a major development in the organization of the medical profession in Norman Sicily direct impact of Arab civilization. References to indicate that most of the doctors were from the Norman kings of Arab doctors Beraathm renowned scientific and regulatory. It is certain that they had told King Roger II of reform that has already been introduced by the Abbasid caliph al-Muqtadir God in the medical profession. He issued this caliph in 931 AD law prohibiting the practice of the medical profession to any doctor unless subject to examination in medicine before a panel of doctors headed by his personal physician, Sinan ibn Thabit Bin Kara, and was succeeded in this exam provides a license or written authorization allowing him to practice. The reason for this is that the doctor had made ​​a mistake in treating a sick patient died in Baghdad. After two centuries Enter Roger II of this system to his country where he issued an order which required all doctors in the UK to obtain a special license or permission from the competent officer otherwise subject them to harsh penalties Kalhabs and confiscation of funds. This system was introduced to the west of Sicily EU. It was a valid basis for the preparation of a layer of qualified doctors. 

Conclusion: 
Based on the foregoing, it has formed the Arab civilization in Sicily solid foundation of civilization Norman carried on its soil, but that the positive attitude of the Norman of Arab civilization and their interaction with deep, make Sicily one of the greatest countries of the European civilization in the twelfth century. Needless to say, starting to recall that the first spark, the renaissance of modern European, especially from Italy, and before any other country, the direct impact of the Arab civilization in Sicily.

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