السبت، 26 يوليو، 2014


When Islam came to the Arabs since ignited interest in various forms of knowledge and science, and his brilliant military victories - progress and prosperity of the culture of thought in terms of all science and applied theoretical knowledge, as well as various arts and industries. 

It was the great attention given by the Islamic State of science and scientists created a factor favorable conditions for the spread of education, what to broadcast science and medicine that Akedzia new garment, but blew two of New Spirit. It has encouraged the prophet of Islam, peace be upon him the same study medicine, said: «Treat, the Almighty God did not put any disease but put his diabetes medication is one: Pyramid» (Narrated by Abu Dawood). 

Hafez Muslim scholars on the heritage of knowledge of Greek, Vahtermuh and Kdrōh and stood up by and the evolution, and that was a great contribution to the advancement of medicine, has translated Muslims to Arabic literature Galen and others, and Ozaaoha on scientific centers in various parts of the Islamic state, it was for this great work and Galilee benefits of great scientific and bilge . 

Has contributed to the governors as well as Muslims in the renaissance of science to drug treatment, but many believe that the English word Drug synonymous with the drug, medical derivative of Arab origin, as is the case with thousands of other terms. 

Muslims also established the governors of large teaching hospitals and public clinics throughout the Islamic state. 

Fortunately for Medical Sciences has received the lion it fully, thanks to the encouragement of moral and material of the caliphs and rulers and wealth, particularly during the period between the years 800 - 1200 AD. 

This prosperity included all the Islamic countries of the Middle in Syria to the west in Andalusia, was Egypt's Islamic largest share in the progress of civilization, has given to the world of medical science a lot, and is considered one of the fountains of the Arab Thought .. has given unless give him States other Islamic civilization and knowledge and art thought and innovation, after that of God by the "Islamic conquest" the year 21 AH during the reign of Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab may Allah be pleased with him, met with the civilization of the Arabs coming from the Arabian Peninsula, the civilization of the Pharaohs received by the sons of the Nile, was unlike Muslims the light of the setting sun to the civilizations of the Pharaonic, Greek, and they had preferred to keep the medical sciences; improve because the Romans did not do this heritage, while the Arabs and Muslims Tzlmoh Otguenoh and excelled in it and added to it. 

This was to meet the cultural result directly in advancing progress in various fields of science and knowledge industries and administrative systems, as owner Fotouh Islamic establishment of schools, and the most fascinating aspects of civilization Islamic schools of medicine, since the establishment of the state of Islamic mosques were Institutes General to teach the law as well as the role of worship, it was the first institute is established by the Holy Prophet peace be upon him in the mosque of the city, after emigrating in the first year. 

And over time became the mosques are all Islamic universities, and became the name of the mosque, "collector", and today we call our organization great scientific Bmant overall "umbrella" any "University", and is now being taught the various sciences of life and religion. 

The famous Omar Bin Mansour Albhabera, and Mohammed bin Abdullah al-Masri, the teaching of medicine in the mosque Tulunid established by Ahmed Ibn Tulun, the founder of the Tulunid in Egypt during the third century AH, also known Abdul-Latif al-Baghdadi, who was studying medicine at Al-Azhar Mosque (was established in time Moez Ledin Allah Fatimid, the founder of the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt, during the fourth century AH). 

It also established houses wisdom (ie bookcases) to collect books from various fields of science to save them and translate them, and was the first House wisdom is the Dar al-Hikma standard, which was established in the time of Harun al-Rashid (second century), and the collection of his Barameka wrote India Value, written Persia, Greece, the translation movement has been active, and in the era of the safe in the first third century AH, became the House of Wisdom Academy for scientific research in various fields of science, especially medical science, and added their science to the Arabs what Torgomoh Science of other nations. 

When the spread of science and literature increased, and amounted to a passion for science a large amount of people is no longer the role of the wise suffice, were established the role of science and lectures, the first House science Musli (in the third century AH). 

Then appeared the schools established by professors and the wealthy, and began the House meets the professor with his students, and the oldest school is a school of Abu Bakr bin Fork Asbahani (fifth century AH) in Nishapur, and were taught the various fields of science, then became those schools "government", and the first public schools are the regular school system, established by King (in the fifth century in Baghdad and Khorasan). 

Here it should be noted that Arab Muslims were the first to make the teaching of the duties of the state, and the first they knew of the nationalization of medicine and treatment. 

The Razi and one of the most famous Muslim doctors, the thousand in the tenth century more than three hundred books in medicine, also developed a medical encyclopedia complete, and the famous as well as the Muslim physician Ibn Sina, until it became his book, "The Canon of Medicine," one of the most important textbooks in medical schools during the Middle Ages, and famously, another Muslim medic in Cordoba, a Zahrawi, who wrote in the tenth century a book review in detail all the medical knowledge in his time, also wrote a book a photographer in surgery is the first of its kind in the history of medicine, and within which pictures of the tools that are used in the science of surgery . 
Examples of the role of medical science (Dar Ibn Sina), was the meet where science students, many of whom read in the book of the law, and the last reading in the ways of healing, and the teaching is at night; lack of vacuum during the day because of the service the Sultan and princes. 

One of the main medical schools also school Aldjuaria Baham, created by Abu Mohammed bin Ali bin Hamid known Baldju, was Khala (ie, a doctor for the eyes), and studied at the hands of many doctors Damascus, and was a professor Bpemmarstan Nouri great, then after his death stopped his house and made ​​the School of Medicine . As well as the school Dinsria established by Imad Eddin Dinsri, but the role of science and medical schools did not meet the required purpose; because the medicine of experimental science that does not fit her these institutes, it was not necessary to study the process; therefore remained Alpemmarstanat are medical schools preferred to teach courses for students, where it's a place where there are cases of disease and treatment methods. 

And Alpemmarstan is a Persian word consists of a two-pronged "Pemmar" in the sense of the disease, and "Stan" meaning place; any that means collectively, the "Place of the disease", and then altered in modern times to the word Marstan, became for a long time calling on the role of treatment of mental, until it became the expression Commoner for this type of hospitals. 
Thus established medical schools scientific, or Alpemmarstanat educational, and most importantly Alpemmarstan Almguetdra in the fourth century AH in Baghdad, was destroyed by the Mongols, and Alpemmarstan Nouri great in Damascus (in the sixth century AH), and Alpemmarstan brachial in Baghdad, and al-Mansouri in Cairo, established by Mansour Sayf al-Din Qalawun (in the seventh century), and he oversaw the Alpemmarstan and studying medicine in which scientists saw their history; in Alpemmarstan brachial was the son of nullity, and the son of the pupil, and Sinan bin Kara, and Almguetdra was Wasti, and Nouri: Son Aldju, and Ibn al-Nafis, Ibn Abi Osabah . 

The Bimarstan Qalawun in Cairo was the greatest Hospital and Medical College in the history of Egypt during the Middle Ages, and was supervised by his senior doctors, which corresponds to the day we have, "Dean of the Faculty of Medicine," was chosen from senior doctors, and the best in the reputation of the note, and the supervision of the Alpemmarstan is one of the functions of the state job and his boss right to interview Sultan at any time, as it was for Bimarstan two sections: a section for men and another for women, and all of the sections interior includes several disciplines such as: Ophthalmology - Surgery - diarrhea and fever - mental illness and psychological ... etc. . 

As the Department of External frequented by about 4,000 patients a day distract them good varieties of treatment, and each section is supervised by the President, and the President of doctors and heads of branches only permission to practice the art of medicine to those who they see as valid of students studying Balbimarsstan, and was assisted by teachers or professors sects teaching assistants; The system (teaching assistants) is originally from the innovation of Islamic education, and was a Teaching Assistant for duties including those mentioned Qalqashandi "If the teacher gave a lesson and went away, returned the students what speech teacher; Ahassanoh and to understand it." 

Was attending school or medical Alpemmarstan easy, as goes the student to where it sits professor, and listen to him, and the student is free to choose the decisions of the study, and even the study of what it wants and the freedom of movement of the professor to another, so that the study on a whim, do not impose it in the form of programs or compulsory courses, and did not mess it also may come to mind, but there were basic Books must be studied by the student, and he can not get his vacation if not mastered these books. 

Perhaps many people know that this system is finished we have we are creators, and go to the developed nations led by the United States and Europe, and is still in place and applies even have a day, a student who is studying Graduate or unusual chooses his teacher and courses or programs that will be investigated by himself and complete freedom, does not impose imposes upon him or his teacher or supervisors. But it is recognized today in this great creativity to the Arabs, and preferred to Islamic civilization and science curricula and methods of teaching?! 

And pass six centuries in full after this creativity Muslim, and we find in 1537 a doctor Belgium, but a world of scientists University of Louvain, is Andre Vezalos, translated the book the ninth of books Razi into European languages​​, and soon Vezalos he was appointed professor of anatomy at the University of Padua, in his time entered the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Padua in new methods of Islamic practice of medicine, which it soon spread to the rest of Europe, and contributed significantly to the advancement of medicine in Europe.

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