السبت، 26 يوليو، 2014


A Monetary History of the currency in Islam 
A Monetary History of the currency in Islam 
Monetary language other than al-nasee'ah a deferred sale, and in the language: criticize him DH: I gave them, but this Criticism in the history of human civilization, is one of the most important achievements of civilization, because it is easy transactions relevant humanitarian matters of trade relations, both at the individual level or at the level of groups and communities . And cash and money today they are one thing, but this came at the forefront of Islamic law, in connection with any members of the immediate community and its importance in human life and its association with him. 

Akram God humanitarian law of Islam, was a prophet and messenger of this law, Muhammad peace be upon him, one of the finest stomachs Arabs proportions and the honor and prestige, and was Arab honor lineage and honors of this, in getting them to the letter and invite people to it, was knighted this message standing human on this earth to he is the successor of God on them, and the rule of the Arabs and Islam prevailed bone their own devices, and gained the honor of honors over other nations, saying the Almighty: {you are the best nation on earth to people} [Al-Imran: 110]. 

And a financial system that is the subject of talk in it, is this corner of the law of God, and Menhalh Anbuah in assets and organized by the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. 

The financial system in Islam and fairness: 
The thus characterized by Islamic law in the relationship is recognized as belonging to the funds that make God Mstkhalafa where, Money Money God, Vojb the Muslim work duties, and stay away from taboo, has gone this system Baadalth to secure the sufficiency of the individual under the Islamic state to live cream, whatever religion or lineage, as well as within the door of Zakat and alms and donations and expiation, a lot of benefits to the poor of the Muslim community. 

The Muslim community its financial system is based on the fiscal balance and economic cooperation between its members, both in equal opportunity and rationalization of expenditure and consumption and other stay away from forbidden things and taking the recommendations, these are all the assets of divine celestial {not done wrong in the hands of his successor download from the wise Hamid} [separated : 42], these constants may not depart from it, and the difference in, otherwise it was a departure from Islam, and sentenced without what revealed by God, Vmahramat money: usury of all types of thefts, bribery and subsequent of Mnhiat, and the reason for the prohibition of this came from God, did not finish the Almighty this prohibition only Mdharth clear and Mvsdth preponderant, and if you do not show Mdharth in the case, it will show if at all, has collapsed in front of this divine order of the communist regime, and will collapse as well as in front of the capitalist system, including the in organized usury of injustice to human beings. 


Indeed, financial and monetary in Arab society at the advent of Islam 
Indeed, financial and monetary in Arab society at the advent of Islam 


Indeed, financial and monetary in Arab society at the advent of Islam: 
The Arabs of the most active nations in the business side, so continued their trade with the Georhm Calvers and Romans, and with India and the East Asian across Yemen, and is known as The Quraish trips intent to trade to both Syria and Yemen, he says in the Quraysh: {for Elaf Quraish * Elaffhm journey winter and summer * Let them adore the Lord of this House * that fed them from hunger and with security against fear} [Quraish: 1-4]. 

Arabs and ignorance before Islam were affected including Georhm in dealing Mounhiat and taboos in their financial transactions. 

The currency in circulation among them: silver dirham Persian, and the dinar Rumi Golden, has indicated the history books, that the civilization of the Roman in Egypt and the Levant attracted all the gold in the West European criminal, barbaric (as described by geographical Frenchman Maurice Lombard, in his book: the historical geography of the Islamic state until the IV), and the meaning of this is that the fall of the Islamic state, the Roman state and the rule of the Islamic state on all of Egypt and Syria, have inherited the largest stock of gold in the world that day, represent the treasures of the monasteries, churches and tombs in Egypt and the Levant. 

Unit weight value of cash when Arabs ignorance: 
Knew Alqrxion, they are senior Arab traders, how to deal with both wealth to this fund DRAM Persian silver and gold dinar Rumi, they were dealing the unit weight value, ie, "gold is milled and known as gold dust," The unity of the weight of these has ever known Quraish came units of weight at the The following figure: 
1 - Almthagal equal to twenty-two-carat only a fraction. 

2 - ten dirhams equal to seven Mthaqil. 

3 - pound equal to twelve ounces. 

4 - ounce equals forty dirhams. 

5 - Dirham is equal to one to forty ounce of weight. 

6 - equal to the weight of gold dinars. 

7 - every ten dirhams equal weights of seven weights of the dinar. 

8 - Filament: The unit of weight equal when Quraish from one to sixty of the weight of the dirham. 

9 - Alnc equal to twenty dirhams. 

10 - the nucleus is equal to five dirhams. 

This was the basic criteria in the case of unit weight value, was approved by the Prophet peace be upon him these standards and walked on his approach Caliphs until Muawiyah - may Allah be pleased with him - down to Abdul Malik bin Marwan. 

Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab - may Allah be pleased with him - and the first author of the monetary system in Islam: 
Faced an Islamic state in the era of Umar - may Allah be pleased with him -, with the movement of the Islamic conquests and widening the borders of the Islamic state, the issue of dealing Dinars Rumi Golden historically known as the "Nyumzmh", and AED Persians silver and known as "Baghli", in addition to monetize Central Asia, a silver dirham Tabari , the proportion of "Tabaristan." 

Faced with this reality went Omar - may Allah be pleased with him - to develop a system for this case, which came as a result of the movement of conquests and widening the borders of the Islamic state, he walked on the approach to deal with this fact-based account accurate linked to the issue of unit weight value, based on the weight of the dirham, Valdarham came Weight value of the standard of fourteen carats and carat equals "3.96" grams, Carat unit weight of Greek, and sou unit of measurement Persian, Valdarham equal to "14" carat, and the gold dinar equal to "4.25" g, came accidentally Omar - may Allah be pleased with him - the development of this system to peg gold silver. 

But preoccupation with the Muslim question of conquest and not knowing the issue of minting and hit her, has before the age of dealing with cash, turkeys gold and Persian silver, despite the charges, except to put words and sentences Muslim, this dinars and dirhams, so we can see that the age - may Allah be pleased with him - may have inadvertently in this work, unity between the progressive wealth to this fund, which precipitated the use of wealth to this fund in all Islamic lands open both in Persia or the Roman country, on the basis of the unity between the dirham and the dinar. 

It should be pointed out to him: that the criticism is a source of the most important sources of history of any human society belongs to this criticism reveals the nature of life that society, and the names of its kings and rulers, it is both wealth to this fund Persian Rumi was us know the duration of trading them in the Muslim community, has also been criticism know the date on which first hit the Islamic criticism, and criticism of the most important humanitarian bidding because it is easy for people in the issues of trade and financial transactions. 

Switch to cash-Islamic history: 
After the building was completed Islamic state, politically and geographically, went caliphs in drawing state lines and must be based upon the state of the systems and laws, and they went in the enactment of laws and bureaucracy, and the issue of financial and monetary system of the most important issues faced by the Umayyad caliphs, he went in a system New cash, having been the use of the role of the Sasanian and beating turkeys for a long time, due to trading currencies in most of the land where Islam prevailed and where. 

Another reason for the circulation of wealth to this fund which is the ignorance of Muslims this kind of industry in a matter of hitting cash and Sikh, as well as their concern for the spread of Islam. 

But after the political stability of the Islamic state, due to the prohibition of Islamic law for pictures and statues that represent the creature, a man who was a mother of an animal, was quoted by the role of the beating to Dar Caliphate in Damascus, and became a hit is in Damascus, and the Quranic verses or phrases such as Islamic word of monotheism and the like, and there is there are historical sources indicate that the Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib - may Allah be pleased with him - was first coined currency in Basra year (40 AH - 660 AD), was written by the kufic script, but this attempt did not overlook, that came rolling (41 - 60 AH - 660-680 m) and went to hit the cash in Damascus, and it refers son Khrdazbh geographical known in writing (tract and kingdoms), which began authored year (232 AH - 846 AD), and talked about the construction boom and business known to the Umayyad dynasty, such as beating currency whether Dinara golden or dirhams silver, and the reason for this is the abundance of metal each of gold and silver in the State, also pointed out that the Caliph Muawiya - may Allah be pleased with him - is the first of minting Islamic, and it pointed out of the famous (Maqreezi) in his well-known (b Nuggets contracts to mention money) says: "the strike is also rolling out a statue of him dinars Mottaglda his sword." 

But the reign of Abdul Malik bin Marwan (74-75 AH / 693-694 AD), known as advanced and wide to hit the cash and Sikh, and especially in the city of Damascus, and Damascus has widened the circle hit the currency in different parts of the states of the Islamic state, having authorized them to Dar succession basic money . 

In the era of safe the Abbasid caliph (198-218 AH / 813-833 AD), headed the role of batting towards decentralization, beginning of year (212 AH - 827 AD), and since the Umayyad been consolidated work Balnkadin dirham and the dinar at the expense of unit weight value, was the budget Baghdad until ninth century calculated in dinars to the people of Morocco, and DRAM for the people of the Orient, and with the beginning of the tenth century and became a calculated estimated dinar, which testifies to the monetary union at the level of the administrative level of the state. 

Then followed by a series of money in the process hit successive Muslim countries so that each country had its own currency and was most recently the Ottoman Empire, and was characterized by all of these currencies against the existence of the pictures or cut-outs for governor or the Emir, due to the prohibition of pictures and statues in the Islamic religion. 

Conclusion: Vmdersh Islamic jurisprudence left us inherited a precious and rare in putting money in Islam, contributed by leading scholars and scientists, such as a book (abscess) to the author: Judge Abu Yusuf, and the book (money) to the author: Abu Obeid al-Baghdadi, and the book (provisions Bowl and American religious) to the Imam Mawardi, and the book: (roads wisdom in legitimate politics) of Imam Ibn Jawziyyah ... 

All of this Heritage Financial refers to the integration of systems of Islamic law and the elevation of the financial system in Islam, prompting many economists and money in this day and age to talk about this system and its strength in front of the financial systems of other, has incorporated this system today under the new name is (economic doctrine of Islamic ) as distinct in Masrth to other financial systems.

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