السبت، 26 يوليو، 2014




Increasingly fierce attack on Islam and Muslims these days as the "fight against terrorism" at times, and as the "clash of civilizations" sometimes a second, and a third time under the title of "dialogue of civilizations", and this one American presidents announce "the beginning of the Crusades II" at the beginning of the invasion of Afghanistan, and one of the popes accusations that Islam inaugural event and sitting on a chair in the Vatican Rome!! Then ask us to "moderation" and "centrism", and accuse us of not respecting "human rights" a non-Muslim, of course ..! 

The same conditions in which we live today accompanied the Crusades military coming from Europe to the Islamic East in the form of successive waves beginning of the century atheist century AD sweeping everything and everybody at the instigation of the clergy and kings and feudal lords greedy in the fortunes of the East and the haters to Muslim control on the trade routes, sea and land coming from India Southeast Asia and China to Europe, and Rest "emirates crusade" in Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and the Kingdom of the Holy House, which cited the walls fifty thousand Muslims. 

The conflict continues to rage between Muslims and Crusaders more than a century to come, "Saladin" and sweep the Crusader presence. 

As much as the Crusades, destruction and a curse on the Islamic world these campaigns were a boon to Europe as a whole, the fragmentation of Muslims and divided into small rival, and extinguished the flame of enthusiasm and began living eras of decadence. 

I've stayed "Islamic civilization" for eight centuries Zahira unrivaled in various political, economic, social, architectural, artistic, and Europeans became aware of this civilization in the Levant, and knew that their rulers and the men of the church Khaddauhm. 

Returned to Europe, and Italy was the closest regions of the European to the world, but the Muslims have had a presence on the island of Sicily and southern Italy over a century and a half ago .. Sicily, which is still its museum keeps a map of the Muslim world, "Idrissi" drawn on the board round of silver, etc. City still Salerne Salerno in southern cherishes the existence of the first "Islamic school of medicine" in Europe!! Where the torch began what was known as the "modern Renaissance", which lasted three centuries in Throes quoted Europe to modern times .. 

Have seen these three centuries movement statements geography of the Americas, Australia and the Cape of Good Hope to the East Asia and India, and poured money and gold and agricultural crops new to Europe (Spain, Portugal, Britain);, which led to the industrial revolution or coup industrial transfer Europe of industry hand to machines , and in particular the steam engine and loom weaving, and then followed by a wave of European colonialism to the modern countries of Asia and Africa; for raw materials and markets for Musnoathm in these colonies. 

Makers of civilization 
Widened the scope of the Islamic state and reached a maximum breadth in the era of the Abbasid state, stretching from the borders of China in the east to Andalusia in the west, which fragmented today to around 55 Islamic state, and the widening and thus the diversity of appearances morphologies and different climatic conditions led to a great variety of agricultural products, where, and who was the basis upon which successful industries such as sugar cane, cotton, linen, flowers, fruits, and grains!! 

The whale land of Islam a lot of minerals such as iron, gold, copper, silver and precious stones, and Judt sea fish and extensive pasture provided the industry Balosua, leather, lint, meat, thanks to these raw materials varied carried across the Islamic state of various industries depending on these materials, and prospered so the industry is booming, and of the degree of high of perfection even though she was manual work but it was famous precision and skill and proficiency .. Where Europe was in this era of prosperity of Muslim civilization? 

How Europe contacted the Islamic civilization? 
Were not the Crusades is the only road which crossed the Islamic civilization to Europe, but there were roads and other crossings contact all the way Europeans, there Andalusia, which settled Arabs about eight centuries reached where civilization heyday, and became cities Centers radiation civilization comes to asylum science All over the world, this Cordoba "Corduba" or "Cordoba" pilgrimage to a popes of Rome and staying the years to learn, then Seville (Sevilla) or (Hispalis) and Granada "Granada", and Toledo "ToIedo" which lit streets as "lanterns", and introduced to water, public baths and known "quarantine", was a newcomer to isolate these cities for three days to make sure that it is free of infectious diseases, as he must bathe in the "public bath" and come down in the "down" (hotel) INN. 

And already referred to the island "Sicily" and the south of Italy, which opened at the hands of the state Aghlabids, and its cities "Palermo" Paleromo capital of Sicily today and touched me Messine and Syracuse Syracuse Siracusa and Barry "Bari" then Salerno "Salerne" which defined the first school of medicine are still ruins remain to this day , also known as Sicily "house style," a sense today's fashion house visited by the kings and princes of Europe to sew clothes and Ttrisaha gold thread and silver. 

It is important ways that have helped to move the Islamic civilization to Europe is the exchange of trade between the East and the West - from Egypt and the Levant - described by Ibn Khaldun in his introduction p 453, saying: "Not Over Today civilization of Egypt they or the world, and Ewan Islam, and the fountain of science and Sanai" . 

The enriched traders brokers Europeans of this trade and enriched the wealthiest obscene, especially the owners of ships dealers Genoa Genova and Venice Venezia and Napoli Naples and Florence Florenze, and this the reason why the "Renaissance European Renaissance from Italy near the lands of Islam." 

The list is long 
If we limit ourselves in this study on the industry that surpass the Muslims and transported to Europe through those crossings, and the ways mentioned above .. we will find that the list is long incalculable .. and what was the most important human needs at the beginning of the era of the Islamic State is a clothing and food, has been active textile industries and fabrics, carpets, rugs, sugar industry and the glass industry, soap and water and gunpowder, ships of all kinds and commercial fishing complexes fruit (jams) Jam; abundance of fruit in the lands of Islam, including citron (Citrus aurantium), peaches, apricots, pumpkin, carrots, dates and so on .. and grain milling industry in Mills water or air spread throughout the Islamic world, and drying the fish industry. 

The perfume industry has been active and flourished in Persia and Iraq, and became the territory of "Sabor" like a knight in Paris today in the production of his fame perfume of violets and daffodils and lilies, mercury, Almrsen and bitter orange. As for the city, "Gore" in South Pars, which is attributed to roses, which settled Damascus, Syria later, was issued "rose water" to Morocco and Andalusia, Egypt, Yemen, India and China. 

In the Islamic Museum in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates special corner for crafts and cut-outs metal medical instruments used months doctors Muslims, and another corner of the carpet Bnicohh and his drawings beautiful, and corner a third of the most beautiful coins and coins of gold and silver and copper for ages different Muslim, has spread "the role of the beating," or "The role of rail "In all parts of the Islamic world, and used the experience of the Sassanid Persians, Byzantines, and became the position of" headmaster rail "of important positions in the Islamic state, has been known Muslims are three types of gold coin and unity" dinar ", and a silver coin and unity" DRAM ", and words Mstguetan of currency ancient Greek "Dinarios" and "Drachma", the currency unit and copper were "penny". 

The timber industry and wood carving, which has acquired the name of arabesque (Arabisc) known by Egypt, Pakistan and India from wood teak and ebony, beech and juniper and others, and breadth of the subject and the comprehensiveness of the industry in the Arab-Islamic civilization will limit our study to some studies, the industries that have had an impact on Europe, which is the textile industry, and the sugar industry. 

Textile industry 
As the needs of the human past and before Islam almost exclusively in two key requirements including food, clothing, Faqamt peoples of this region industry need of clothing than the availability of its raw materials for the industry, the Egyptians knew growing flax which they had made of his legs their clothes, and used flaxseed oil in their food , and found large amounts of tissue linen in the tombs of kings lapped by the "mummies" Fraanthm, and Arabs knew camel and sheep's wool, and their clothes were ragged inaccurate made, and knew the Persians cotton, as well as Mesopotamia and Kerman .. 

The regions of Central Asia in Khuzestan and Tabaristan and Afghanistan known silk yarn to its proximity to China, and were manufactured by the fabrics brocade and strings Alibrism in the city, "Quartz" in Tabaristan, and what has become of these areas sheltered under the umbrella of Islam flourished textile industry, considered among the most important industries so that most of the governments of Islam made ​​him have a monopoly, and its factories known as the Prius, which is a Persian word meaning embroidery or clothing. 

It has become the industry's big body of workers and staff and transport many of its own boats and mounts .. I've called "Maurice Lombard" in the book (Islam in his greatness first) on the Islamic civilization, the civilization of the fabric; for dress and furniture, and weaves his carpet is the most important piece in the household effects and fabric for tents and armies. 

You have reached the carpet industry in the Islamic state a high degree of proficiency, and still carpets (Persian) (Persian) tops the finest carpets made ​​from wool, silk, cotton, jute, and carried types of carpet names of the cities in which Brsomea and carvings of their own, this is the inscription "Shirazi "and" Tabrizi "and" Isfahani "was rivaled Turkish carpets in general, and carpets Stock Exchange, capital of Beni Uthman first resting place of the remains of Osman and his son Orhan .. the city of Bursa in mainland Asia represents the end of the road the famous" silk Road "silk way which begins from China, where gained its name from the most important commodity a campaign caravan silk, carpets, incense, perfumes, precious stones, spices, etc. .. passes through the mountain ranges in the complex "Himalaya" and Solomon and "Kara Kora". 

Dr Philip even in his book (History of the Arabs): this is not a business for a range of nor behind an elaborate national industry and agriculture are important and wide and varied. 

He adds: Caliph Musta'in mother was in an era of prosperity Abbasi carpet woven her _khasasy, Oclavha amounted to one hundred and thirty million dirhams, with pictures for many types of birds made ​​of gold thread, and the eyes of others and sapphire gems. 

The Fabric told her wondrous great, it has taken her names as raw material made ​​from them Alltel Linen, which moved its manufacture from Egypt, where he mastered the Copts industry, and fine linen or seersucker and Treasury, which introduced its industry of China by the Persians, and the "brocade", a cloth stained thin , and "Alsaglaton" a kind of silk Mushi gold thread and the "cut" and later known as "Plush" is made from silk mixture Popper male rabbits, and Sondos has been mentioned in the Quran .. a kind of transparent fabric thin Caldibaj character in languages European to "Chifon". 

It also carried the fabrics names of Islamic cities that made the Damask Damascus proportion to Damascus, and muslin Mousseline proportion to Mosul, Iraq today, and keffiyeh headdress proportion to the city of Kufa, and Aldepqa attributed to the city of glutinous near the city of Damietta in Egypt, and tapestry relative to the Copts in Egypt, and Ltinaysa in Egypt, which made ​​the finest linen. 

It also acquired the makers of the craft industries that manufacture them names such as: Bazzaz (outdoing vendor), and Alkhozaz, and Al-Qattan, and the weaver, and "Tarazi" His house model. 

With the expansion of the Islamic state and the emergence of class differentiation became each layer dress uniforms know it, but the positions and ranks of government was the uniforms for each employee knows it, but the founder of the Ibn Khaldun's sociology outfit considered a manifestation of the Islamic civilization and the arts. 

I knew "cloak" Ze clergy, Urdu and pants and turbans and berets and Aljellalab - a dress thick - to the general public, and a jacket and a caftan, and the judiciary wear "Tyals", plural "Talsan," The soldiers They were dressed in "uniform" embellished strips by the rank of the soldier and of them knew Bacharti , as some of them wearing "loincloth" around the waist, and was made of silk or cotton by social status of the owner. 

And six women robe, and Almparty (long robe his party) and Darraa, and Sheets, and the niqab, which was confined to wear it on the aristocracy in the beginning following the example of women of the Prophet peace be upon him, and pants that defined women Arabs before Islam and who knew the Europeans to as the "Pantalon". 

In Knight famous city dress "Vistan" industry fabric recite colors of the sun, was said: The wife of the Caliph wearing a robe of "dress", and then delete the preposition (from) became a woman wears a "dress", and this word is still in the Muslim East, the Levant and Egypt, among others. 

We in this regard will not forget the related industries tissue, including dyeing, it was indigo scarlet used for coloring in blue, they plant Enter from India to Mesopotamia, Yemen and low-lying areas in the depths of Palestine and Syria, also used saffron in coloring in yellow and hyacinth or bones of the coloring in red, The owner of this craft is known as "pigment". 

The owner of the proliferation and diversity of raw materials and raw materials, textile materials and techniques in the industry offering the industry, I knew looms with horizontal vain, vain and another with vertical, then the loom with a pedal took him from China, and use the loom with shuttle pilot in the carpet industry. 

Sugar industry 
Europe did not know the taste of sweet but sugar or honey it contained the fruits fruits such as grapes, apples, etc., and was limited to the use of honey-class luxury to its high price and limited quantities of it! The sugar which is known by its Arabic name in the languages ​​of science - in English "Sugar" and the French "Suere" - a feat other than the exploits of Muslims on a low civilization, "While it is not an invention an Arab, but their hands white in the development of its industry and its publication can not be denied." 

It is believed that the original home of sugar cane is India then transferred Persians first plant him in the "Jund Asabour", and spread cultivation of sugar mills, refined in Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Cyprus and the Caspian Sea, Sicily and Spain, and Egypt was the former to the improvement of the industry, made ​​of sugar, a bit of candy called "Guendh," misrepresented European languages ​​to "Candy", and these areas have been Arab and Islamic primary source of sugar in the Islamic world and Europe until the sixteenth century. The Andalusia (Spain), Sicily, the most important of which crossed the border crossings, including the sugar industry to Europe! Sources have reported that the Greeks in their conquest of Persia and India knew the plant sugar cane, and described it as "amazing hit of the reed produces a kind of honey bees countries of intervention." 

Transfer seas - navigator - without Enrique cultivation of sugar cane from Sicily to Madeira in 1420 AD, followed by Christopher Columbus discovered the New World (America), enter the cultivation of sugar cane to the islands Lderminkan in his second trip there in 1493, and then spread its cultivation in Central America (especially Cuba and southern Brazil), and became a popular international sugar trade, and was the first sugar refinery in Europe had founded in 1573 in the city, "Augsburg", followed by another factory in the "Dresden", Germany, in 1597 AD. 

Have been associated sugar industry many other industries the most important candy maker in the Islamic world, especially the era of the Abbasid state and the era of the Fatimid dynasty, which was distributed sweets in the Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, and was distributed "Qratis sugar Alguend" to the public if Rizk Caliph Bghulam crown prince. The types of candy that much-talked about and wrote the poems for successors: Alvwazzj and Allozinj and It is a very Julep and the unleavened bread and mush, and all of them were based sugar, flour and ghee. 

As Muslims knew "molasses cane" molasses Moulase and called on Egypt treacle "grape" and "molasses carob" and "pomegranate molasses", a basic material in dinner nights cold winter in some areas .. As Napoleon Bonaparte campaigned famous Egypt in 1798 was of the objectives of cutting the road between Great Britain at the time and its colonies in the East, especially the crown jewel of the British (India), and the manufacture of sugar from the plant is another beet "Beets" and improved types and raised the percentage of sugar in it, and managed to Iraq during the First World War (1914 - 1918 m) of extracting sugar from "going through the palm," but it was "Eetmao" quickly becomes sticky fast damage if exposed to air humidity; therefore, the use of sugar dates remained confined to the confectionery and carbonated water there. 

And yet, does not deny the preferred Islamic civilization to Europe but ungrateful or depraved, in every aspect of Islamic civilization: political, economic, social and physical, technical or other find exploits for Muslims, but what I am heartened and I'm doing this study and an abundance of sources and references that have signed - Arab and non-Arab - but some specialty in writing about Islamic architecture only, and another for medicine and tools .. and so on. 

What is accomplished by the creators of these seniors who brought the modern man to the conclusion reached.

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