السبت، 26 يوليو، 2014

Artificial Intelligence: are computer programs that mimic the way humans think, on one occasion computer scientists think that this is possible and easy, but they did not have access to it yet and instead, most computers are still showing a clear degree of artificial stupidity. 
Science of Artificial Intelligence: A modern computer you are looking for sophisticated methods for programmed to carry out the conclusions of the similarity even in the narrow limits of these methods, which are attributed to human intelligence, he is so aware of looking first in the definition of human intelligence and determine its dimensions, and then simulate some of its properties, and here must clarify that this science is not intended to compare or Macbhh human mind created by God Almighty and greatness machine-made creature, but rather aim of this new science to understand the mental processes of complex carried out by the human brain during exercise (thinking) and then translate these mental processes to the equivalent of accounting operations increase the computer's ability to solve complex problems. 

Human intelligence: Allah says in the tight verses: 
(That He shows you the lightning for fear and hope, and come down water from the sky will hold a the earth after its death in that are signs for people who understand) .. The Almighty said (in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day are signs for men of understanding) Almighty God. 
Shows this to say Karim importance of mental processes (mental processes) first to distinguish human from other creatures, and secondly to distinguish a person from another, and with that intelligence is one of the most important processes or activities carried out by the human mind, it is difficult to define precisely: Is it the ability to conclusion ? Or is it the ability to collect and applied science? Or is it the ability to absorb things imaginable and influence in the sensory world? Without going into things profound philosophical, the intelligence can be defined as all of the above and more, it is in the scope of the broad may include all mental processes of genius and innovation and control the movement and the senses and emotions, but in the scope of the study of artificial intelligence of computers can be defined in the scope of man's ability to conceive things and analyze their properties and to draw conclusions of them, so it represents the ability of the human mind to develop a model for the area of ​​life and to identify its components and draw relationships that exist between them, and then introduced the reactions that are commensurate with the events and attitudes of this area. 
In order to know the details of this definition Flantsour that the two went together to watch a football match, one of whom was a master of the laws of the game and plans and the names of the players and the importance of the result of a match on the different competitions, while the other person is far from football and laws, and after the end of the game, we asked each of them to comment on what he saw, we will find that the first person is able to provide an analysis of "intelligent" for the game plans of both teams in the play and mistakes, but we found that the suspension of the second person is mostly primitive may not exceed a description of a simple number of 22 players competing costumed sports one ball without purpose or meaning .. and it can be concluded that the cause of the first analysis of intelligent is having what might be called a model of the game and its laws in his mind, which enabled him to retrieve and analyze situations and incidents of the match that he saw, while the lack of this model with the second person led to the simplicity of his commentary on the game, even if we let the second person long enough to watch many games, it is possible that the development of a model in mind for this game and he was able to provide an objective analysis of them later also in the capacity of first-person development model developed by changing the elements whenever grandfather New, so the man is able to develop mental models that we're talking about doing and thinking and then developed if necessary. 

One of the main benefits of this form of mental Isthaddth man who subconsciously he assisted on the inventory of the facts relevant to the subject in the field of research and simplifying the complex steps that are characterized by the true picture. If the area of ​​research, for example, is the state of health of the heart of a patient, the model of mental which Isthaddth specialist doctor for the patient is focused on important relationships, such as patient's blood pressure and blood sugar and cholesterol in the blood, and excludes relations is important, such as eaters favorite for the patient and the size of his garment and color of his car, and so on. 

Artificial intelligence: can be defined as artificial intelligence for computer as the ability to represent accounting models (Computer Models) for the area of ​​life and to identify key relationships between the elements, and then develop reactions that are commensurate with the events and attitudes of this area, Valzca artificial thus linked first to represent the accounting model to one of the areas, and then retrieved and developed, and is linked to a second comparing it with the positions and the latest research to draw conclusions useful, and it is clear that the difference between the definitions of artificial intelligence and human mentioned above is the first ability to develop model Man is capable of invention and innovation of this model, while the accounting model is a representation of the model already introduced in the human mind, and secondly in the kinds of conclusions that can be drawn from the model human being is able to use different types of mental processes such as innovation (Innovation) and invention (Creativity) and the conclusion of all types (Reasoning) while accounting operations are limited to the conclusions of the limited according to the axioms and rules of customary international law are programmed in the software itself. 
The focus of the origin of science of artificial intelligence research purely theoretical studying methods of representation models in memory Computer (Model Representation) and methods of research and correspondence between elements (Search & Match Methods) and reduction objectives by (Goal reduction) and action types conclusions different (Reasoning), such as the conclusion by logic (Logic) or by comparison (Analogy) or by induction (Induction). 

One of the main methods of representation of these models is the use of laws (Rules) that govern the scope of areas, Had kinds of fruit, for example, is an area we checked it we can write the following law if the plant fruit and the color was red, it often apples and law contains two sections: Section cop (Premise) of "if you plant fruit and the color was red and section deductive or actual (Action) are often represented in the apple. 
And using a large number of these laws on a particular topic, we create a model that implicitly stores facts about the subject of research, and can be used in dealing with the events and draw conclusions on the subject of the search, is this kind of representation of the common methods due to the ease of application, but it is a representation of a simple but fails in often on the representation of all kinds of models and extract all sorts of conclusions known. 
The method of meanings networks (Semantic Networks) are also common methods of representation in the models, which gets rid of the establishment of a network of relationships between the elements of the form. The third common types of methods of representation is the representation of the so-called frames (frame Representation), which can be considered as a special kind of representation networks meanings. 

As a result of the research labs of artificial intelligence techniques many still some in the early stages of study and research, while arrived others to maturity relative led to the development of new systems process dealing with realistic problems was considered impossible to address them in ways that traditional programming, and is the field of "robotic arm Smart (Smart Robot) and expert systems (Expert Systems) two most important of these areas are as follows About simplified for these two technologies and their potential: 

Smart robotic arm: the robotic arm used recently in the factories to do chores that need to muscle strength and do not require operations or activities of complex mental processes such as welding and paint in the auto plants. Has adopted the operation of these arms of the accuracy and speed control systems (Control Systems), which are powered by computers, and the Japanese were the first to use these arms of extensively in the automotive industry, which has resulted in the invasion of Japan to international markets cars with high quality and competitive prices. 
Do not use the arms of the mechanism in manufacturing many benefits they are not asking for leave, weekly or annual or occasional and trusted not get tired of work does not stop except for periods of maintenance, it is also able to work in factories is not air-conditioned or lit lighting is strong, and in the provision of energy, then it does not raise the claims, nor demanding compensation if exposed mistake or deliberately to toxic gases or harmful chemicals, and finally they do not need to support facilities such as nurseries, dining halls, gyms and other than demanded by the workers, it is not difficult, of course translate all these advantages to provide a large in the cost of production and control of the production capacity of the plants to fit with the forces of supply and demand of the market, without resorting to layoffs for a few weeks or months, or in the development of additional shifts. 

With the development of systems of control mechanism and increase the capacity of computers operated by the increased capabilities of the robotic arm and became conducts accurate vehicle as making segments of micro computer and other businesses that require control systems are complex and difficult, but that these acts were limited what can be accomplished by using the methods of traditional programming has resulted in the introduction of methods of artificial intelligence programming in these arms to open new horizons were not possible before, I greet you today talking about the arms used e-vision (Electronic Vision) to sort the products in moving the arm (or arms of several) in a narrow space in a flexible manner commensurate with the environment variables that it operates. Boils down to style and vision to transform electronic electronic image consisting of points (Pixels) black or white lines and ribs connected to form an image, and then compare the properties of the resulting image models previously stored in the device. This way can identify, for example, the image plane of the wings and tail, and discrimination airport runways takeoff aircraft, and the mosque minaret and so is the difficulty of seeing the electronic difference in the image with different lighting hanging over the body and the occurrence of shadow on parts of it, and vision technology electronic numerous applications in the areas of missile guidance and aircraft and satellite (satellite) and the areas of spying in addition of course to the field of arms of the mechanism. 

Among the most famous vision systems that are used in the industrial field of electronic system is the fact that the user Cit Consight now at General Motors of Canada, which allows the arm mechanism sort of smart templates car engines "Engine Casts" while passing in front of him on the belt moving under certain lighting. After analyzing the light extraction arm templates that do not agree to the required specifications. 

The use of more than one arm in a narrow space technical difficulty that large because of the seriousness of the collision with each other, and the coordination between them to cooperate in the completion of the work that has to problems of technical due to the need to follow up each arm, and his work in addition to what has been done other work. Was limited to the use of arms mechanism until recently on the use of each arm separately, as the use of more than farmers and one in the completion of a complex task needs to be automated systems new and complex you draw the general plan of the movement and the conclusion of the logical steps to be implemented by each arm, and therefore systems need to artificial intelligence methods in the development of models accounting for the environment and storage laws and the foundations of the movement required and despite the emergence of some automated systems enable the robotic arm of the self-movement, such as a system of "Strips Strips" However, most of these systems are still in the stages of research and development. 

Expert systems (Expert Systems) 
The term is derived from the experience expert, a person who experienced many trials over the refined understanding of the area of fields and enriched singled out by the idea of ​​information without the other, and the advantage for his peers from specialists in the field and thus deserved the word expert. The aim of expert systems (Expert Systems) to develop accounting programs can analyze events and attitudes in the area of fields and access to the same conclusions or results up her expert. 
This is done by introducing model accounting equivalent form of mental which the expert and storage of information by, has shown research that the information used by the expert in his work is divided into two main sections: the first private information are common in this area, such as the facts and laws (facts) the recognized and accepted for all specialists (Heuristics) which is characterized by an expert from the other, which may be in the form of, for example, the relationship between skin color and blood cholesterol, or the streamlined shape of the rock sample and the proportion of the mineral deposits. 
These laws Istkhalsa expert from the experiences of and directs his research and study of the case before him and help him to reach the desired results, these laws have Takhtfah of specialized expert to another. 

The scientific paper presented by Professor Vaegnbaum (faygenbaum) Expert Artificial Intelligence at Stanford University, the Conference of Artificial Intelligence World in 1977, the biggest impact in guiding this new science, has put Professor idea that the strength of expert systems stems from the knowledge Knowledge held in inventory rather than their ability to representation models and conducting deductive, and this theory has focused new research on extracting knowledge from experts rather than focusing on the different ways to represent and processes deductive complex, the two themes are not configured theories integrated them yet and therefore they suffer from deficiencies in their applications process. 

One of the first expert systems, which has now evolved into a system Meissen Mycin for the analysis and treatment of diseases of the blood diseases, has developed this system at Stanford University, where the contained base his information on about 400 law linking the symptoms of potential disease conclusions possible, have been compared with the results extracted from the system Meissen in many analysis of the level of doctors who are in the Commission! 

The system also Brosbactr Prospector of the most successful systems that have been developed so far, where the discovery of deposits of molybdenum metal-Molybdenum in the state of Washington in the United States places that experts decided the futility of the search! The value of this discovery about one hundred million dollars. 

And the field of expert systems is the talk of time in the field of artificial intelligence, and that due to it being the most successful practical applications of this new science, and there are now many companies shopping so-called crust or the structure of the system Expert **** ls a systems facilitate the process of representation models accounting and stored laws and then make conclusions it automatically, so the focus is on extracting knowledge from the expert and put it in the Rules (Rules) fit the modus operandi of the structure of the system chosen, and called the process engineering knowledge (Knowledge Engineering) as it is called who by the architects of knowledge (Knowledge Engineers) and is currently in market structures, systems experts differ in many points of superiority and weakness in prices and areas of application, and finally emerged structures, systems running on a personal computer and a relatively affordable, which refers to the imminent arrival of these systems to the commercial market at competitive prices. 

Despite the success of many of these systems, it must be careful and not to the delivery of all that comes out of these systems from the results or conclusions, must also stay away from indulging in fanciful expectations about its capabilities. And we must make clear is that these systems can not replace the expert deadline, and that in spite of the fact that many of the findings of its systems match or even exceed the results that may reach her ​​expert, however, these systems draw their strength from a focus on a particular subject and limited to the field of fields, and that the more expanded this topic weakened its ability deductive and vice versa. It's that the expert systems of great benefit as long as they are used by a competent person the subject of research and familiar with the methods and analyzes used by the system to reach its conclusions, which are useful in the hands of "semi-experts" with the new knowledge of the subject, but it may lead to negative results for example, if a system such as the system which analyzes the errors reactor nuclear reactors in the hands of someone who does not know anything about nuclear reactors and the perception of this person so that he has become an expert and began tampering with the keys, the results will undoubtedly be dangerous. 

And expert systems certain areas have proven their ability in it more than others have known for planning Planning in the analysis of symptoms and identify errors Diagnostics In Design Design In Command and Control Command and Control and other specialized areas that have been understanding of the processes required to her, and suited to the capabilities of representative and deductive structures of the systems used, We conclude from all the foregoing that expert systems or rather systems, knowledge bases knowledge Base Systems as preferred by many researchers call it - are new systems with capabilities far outnumbering the capabilities of automated systems traditional terms that have the ability to get on the conclusions, on contradictory and incomplete incomplete and Inconsistent knowledge a rivaling experts and military leaders who often make decisions under these circumstances, a technique useful process as long as they are used by professionals and applied in areas that are commensurate with our knowledge of the limits of their capabilities. 

Outweigh the expert system / artificial intelligence programs on conventional calculator: 
Expert System is different from the usual software in the computer that knowledge relevant to a particular subject and methods to take advantage of this knowledge is integrated with some. In expert system model appears to solve the problem as a base knowledge of a stand-alone rather than be a part of the program this year and be able to enter data expert system to the existing meta way to knowledge available without the need for re-programming. 
Thus, we can say that the computer program regulates traditional knowledge are two levels of data, knowledge base, and control. It is here we find the difference between the expert system and artificial intelligence programs in conventional calculator: 
Resolve issues that do not have a way to resolve prior: - 
1. They are working with symbols instead of numbers, and this opens new areas to be addressed by the calculator. 
2. Inference (reasoning) and technical research method (heurhstigs). 
3. They are dealing with a language based on the interpreter (interpretere) and not the translator (compler), which allows the expressions based on the difficult concepts in traditional languages​​. And the expression of the problem which is the language of artificial intelligence (lis, prolog), which turn into action through implementation and this is not a pre-programmed to know the solution or outcome. 
This shows that not every expert system based on the knowledge base is an expert system, but that has the ability to interpretation and access to the decision and request additional information as does the human expert in the process of interpretation and analysis, investigation, especially in areas where the facts incomplete or uncertain. 

v properties of expert system / artificial intelligence: - 
§ use the method of comparative method in human problem solving complex 
§ dealing with hypotheses simultaneously and accurately, high-speed 
§ the existence of a specialized solution for each problem and each homogeneous category of problems 
§ working level scientific advisory constant does not fluctuate 
§ constructed representation requires a tremendous amount of knowledge in a specific field 
§ dealing with non-digital data Avatar through logical analysis and comparison 

v motivated to resort to expert systems / artificial intelligence: 
§ it aims to simulate human thought and approach. 
§ to provoke new ideas lead to innovation. 
§ to perpetuate the human experience. 
§ Providing more than a copy of the system to compensate for the experts. 
§ absence of feeling tired and bored. 
§ reduce dependence on human experts. 
§ architectural expert system / artificial intelligence: 

Consists of three basic components: 
A - the knowledge base (knowledge base) is often measured by the level of performance of the system in terms of size and quality of the knowledge base that contains the knowledge base and include: 
1. Absolute truths: describe the logical relationship between the elements and a set of concepts and facts based on experience and practice of the experts in the system. 
2. Ways to solve problems and provide counseling. 
3. Based rules on mathematical formulas. 

B - system inference mechanism (gine inferenceen) which is programmed actions lead to the desired solution by connecting the rules and facts specific line configuration deduction and inference 
T - interface beneficiary (user interface), a procedure that processed the beneficiary suitable tools to interact with the system through two phases of development and use. 

v languages ​​used in the expert system / artificial intelligence 
Can be used for programming languages ​​traditional and where there is property call self-treatment, and also has been associated with building regulations on specialized languages ​​have been developed in the application of artificial intelligence is the most important Language lisp and language prolog where it was identified for the first phase of the project the fifth generation of computers in Japan tend to be descriptive of more than being procedural languages​​. 
The language of krl-netl-klone technology networks that rely Semantics based retrieval of knowledge to deal with systems experience. 

v the use of expert systems / artificial intelligence in libraries and information centers 
There is a consensus of opinion that the expert systems / artificial intelligence will be a new technology looking where specialists in the field of library and information about useful ways to use and investment to facilitate their work and improve the quality of their services and their own experience, we have used the specialists of this technology and have produced many of the systems in the storage and retrieval in indexing and abstracting and indexing and reference works Valmt_khasson must have the experience, and the interaction with the different aspects of life and other skills such as classification, academic expertise, conduct interviews, building Alcanz, knowledge of the needs of the beneficiaries. 

Models of the systems used: 
§ Coder project developed by fox purpose to develop a base of knowledge include the analysis and retrieval of documents and consists of two sections: 
§ subsystem analysis (to the introduction and processing and representation of the new documents) 
§ retrieval subsystem (allows to retrieve a document or part of it 
§ Rebeic system looking at the patterns of the words in the text search automated direct, instead of retrieving and indexing documents previously relied on the knowledge base ruies difficult and it provides specialized rules for each beneficiary. 
§ Esscape project was the construction of two experts in cataloging the library and the main work test access points to determine the main entrances and additional conclusion is the possibility of using the system in indexing to produce the correct bibliographic entries and also be useful in non-traditional businesses. 
§ Gemi is an expert system has been applied in the field of information retrieval, and it is based on the rules + rule base and using a calculator Maekeroah compatible where the recipient can know the reference in the field of interest with the provision of the extract with bibliographical references for all available in university libraries. This system has been applied in Iraq in the field of library and information has been taken into account when applying the system - the nature of the beneficiary and the cultural level - beneficiaries are familiar with or Aotaiadion - Occupation 

Artificial intelligence is the name given to a group of methods and new ways of programming and accounting systems that can be used to develop systems mimic some elements of human intelligence and allow it to carry out all the facts and deductive laws are represented in the memory of the computer. Still, many of the theories of this new science under research and development, however, there are some techniques approved by getting out of the field of science, has proven effective where work was carried out was almost impossible to do using traditional programming, and these new technologies technique robotic arm Intelligent Smart Robot Systems experts and expert Systems focuses on providing technical first robotic arm vision and the ability to e-planning and carrying out complex and complicated it may need more cooperation from the arm on them. And focus on expert systems technology to extract the knowledge used by experts in the field and what stored and used in reaching the conclusions that parallel those up her expert.

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