السبت، 26 يوليو، 2014



Is Badi'ozaman Abu Ezz Abu Bakr Ismail bin aerosol, nicknamed the "island" in relation to his homeland, "the island" between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq, not much is known of the life of island; where devoid biographies of the above, it is believed that he was born in (561 AH -1 165 m) in the land of the island, and died in (607 AH -1210 AD), although some sources indicate he died in (602 AH -1206 AD). 

It is well established that he served in the court of kings "Diyarbakir" Turkmen who were affiliated to the Ayyubid state in the era of its founder, "Salah al-Din," has submitted scientific expertise and innovative capabilities in the invention and construction to the rank of "Reese business," the chief engineer of any state. 

It does not have many details about the study phase in the life of Badi'ozaman island, but it is definite is that he studied mathematics and the availability of its era of information physical and information specific industrial applications, and it was always paired theoretical study, experimentation, and do not trust the theories engineering unless confirmed by practical experiments, as well as his accomplishments are located in the Department of Mechanical inventions and machinery industry, this was a clever engineer concerned with - in particular - using scientific facts and technological expertise in the industry, what benefits the community of innovative machines. 

Scientific achievements of the island and book values 
Illustrated island scientific achievements of his important "Inclusive between science and the useful work in industry tricks," a book in mechanical engineering, is - rightly - the finest books in the Old and Middle Ages for mechanical and hydraulic machines. 

The best known of this book very much in the western world, and translated many chapters of it in the first quarter of the twentieth century to the German language, and the translation of both "Wiedemann" (Wiedmann) and "Hauser" (Hawser) who conducted research are very important in the history of science and technology at Arabs, also issued a full translation in English, carried out by "Donald Hill" (Donald Hall) who specializes in "Arab-date technology." 

It is the study of chapters of the book are aware of the case, that the island was sure-footed in his art, and that he was familiar with all the arts of mechanical and hydraulic conversant strong, and we understand from the introduction to the book that he had written at the request of the King "Diyarbakir" King "Saleh Nasser Eddin Abu Open Mahmoud bin poverty Arslan, the son of David Ben population Ben darner "who came to power between (597-619 AH), and the little island that was previously in the service of the father of this king in the service of his brother, and that his ministry that began in (570 AH -1174 AD), and he has spent twenty-five years in the service. 

It is unfortunate that the Arabic text full of this book, was not published until after his transfer to German and English, and the Institute of Arab Scientific Heritage issuing read full Arab; where gaining Dr Ahmed Yusuf Hassan in collaboration with Dr. Imad Ghanem and owner Mallouhi, depending on the image of all the manuscripts island known and libraries in different world, and the best scripts Istanbul (manuscript Brick Kaba Soeria, No. 3472). 

And is considered by many researchers and scientists of Applied Technology, that this book is the most important author of geometric arrived to us from all ancient civilizations and the argument that the world has known until the European Renaissance, not due this importance only to the inclusion of the book to descriptions of important machinery, mechanical devised by describing island, but also returns to it incorporates the methods of manufacture; has been described these methods in sufficient detail and precise instructions made ​​it possible in the hands of our technicians, all of which have earned the book island wide acclaim, and his fingernail with great interest in the West. 

It is worth mentioning that the researcher and Orientalist "Donald Hill," won for his translation of the book island to the English, and write an overview of "Badi'ozaman island and the history of technology Islamic" prize "Dexter" international granted to the owners of outstanding achievements in the fields of technology, there is a Japanese researcher interested in side fine in a book on the island and provide a study, and dissemination of studies on engineering drawings and illustrations, which was full of manuscripts by one of the book, a manuscript library saved Sulaymaniyah Mosque "Oaasofia" Istanbul. 

And the importance of the book large in the eyes of the West, said his Orientalist Engineer technological Premier Dr. "Donald Hill": "I did not come to us until modern times, a document from any other civilization in the world, which corresponds to what in the book island of the richness of the designs and annotations special engineering ways industry and assembling machines. "

He says the great historian of science, "George Sarton": "This book is more books than ever clearer, and can be regarded as a peak in this kind of achievements of Muslims." 

The importance of the book "inclusive" of the island and its contents 
The book is in five parts, each of which specializes Department of sections tricks or technology industries, and the outstanding combination of the following topics: water clocks, ships, measuring basins, fountains, water-raising machines that operate strongly runoff water, some useful machines such as doors and locks have been ... focused island in his book, the importance of experimentation and the importance of careful observation of the phenomena that are the basis for the conclusions of the process. 

The book summarizes most of the accumulated knowledge about mechanical engineering until that time, with developments and innovations for the Islanders himself, and the importance lies in part with the promise of a description of the machinery and components and ideas, and equally important, look the fact that the island class book with the insistence of the offerer to enable manufacturers of after re-installing the tool-; where he presented a description of each of the fifty auditors machine includes manufacture, and installation, and its constituent parts ... and he says Orientalist "Donald Hill": "it has provided us with a wealth of information concerning the ways and methods of mechanical engineers in the Islamic world." 

It is a ceremony by the book; Description island five machines to raise the water-powered water flow in its natural course, has made ​​island with different designs to suit rises disparate that need to transfer water to it, has left these machines a clear imprint on the history of the machinery industry in the world, as well as the description island The first model of the water pump, which paved the way to create the steam engine and the pumping machines that operate Balmkas or nested cylinders. 

Innovations distinct island 
He described the island are many types of water clocks and sand, including hours watermark The idea of ​​working on the filling and emptying the water from the pot to another at a constant rate, and some of these watches provider mechanisms are very complex based on its work on the movement of water in a closed session, and the resulting effects spectacular, such as the issuance of musical sounds at certain times, or lead to the emergence of a puppet funny movements in order to draw attention to the times of the clock. 

We have invented the island a number of clocks known in his time as "Alpennekamat" or "Alvinckamat," Among these hours; hour drum major, a hour by drummers beating Tpolhm after each hour goes, for people to know how long of hours, including an hour-shaped boat placed decorations in reception halls, and identifies Guests times, including an hour flat, lifted by an elephant trunk once or several times whenever time ago of an hour or several hours, including an hour of watermark design and implementation of the island, and the movement of the water works mechanically. 

It also invented the island as well, a number of fountains or vent Gardens shortcomings of his time in northern Iraq, as well as the invented island a number of machines cranking things, and innovated also Cupboards lift water from lakes, wells and rivers, among the innovations island; machine lifts the water to about twenty cubits by Cupboard of water, the rapid runoff, and invented the boat moving placed in a pool on the boards of the hills night, and devised a machine lift water from a well or a river by an animal run to extend agricultural land to water, and invented sparkling with Awamtin, will exchange work up and down without stopping or interruption, shall continue the water flow to the top, and created a statue of a cow on a disk hollow column topic in the middle of the pool, and manages this cow Dolaba raise the water from the pond to a height of up to more than two meters, has excelled island in drawing geometric shapes exquisite beauty was craftsmen carry them out and decorate their doors of the mosques and palaces. 

Island and Mechanical Engineering 
Securing water for drinking and irrigation, and for the purposes of domestic and industrial, is vital in the Arab and Islamic countries; were not there are heavy rains, rivers and many tables as is the case in the north of Europe, and the areas that were came the rain abundant quantities sufficient for agriculture without irrigation, and here you need irrigation in many cases, the means to raise the water to meet the basic needs Kalshrb cooking, or to provide agricultural land to water for agriculture. 

I've tried Engineers Arabs and Muslims, improve the means of raising the water, and we find it clear to each of the island, and Taqi al-Din, as the description of each machine for lifting water tried the development of known species, has been allocated island in his book "The Whole between science and the useful work in industry tricks" , a special chapter to raise water machines which he described the five types, each containing improvements and innovations. 

God has the first, which greatly improve the work of the sweep, the machine rotates strongly animal as is the case in the waterwheel, and the part that scoop water a scoop her long tail hollow Kalmazab, and scoop tied at the end of her fault axis horizontal so that it is moving with him, and holds the axis at one end Tersa there along this gear pinion partial holds axis parallel to the axis of the scoop, and at the other end of this second axis gear head administered by the pinion horizontal, and this gear last administered the animal tied pole traction, spins the animal in a circular path as is the case in the waterwheel, and runs a pair Cupboards Tooth - thus - the dentate partial, and Taatahq teeth latter rack contrast and run, rising scoop up and emptied the contents of the water into the canal, and when it ends up loving dental partial, drop the scoop back into the water to fill and the process is repeated continuously, and we find that the island describes for the first time cogwheel in part, the use of this type of gear in Europe after about two hundred years from the date of the book island. 

The machine is the second Islanders similar to the first, but it is equipped with four scoops, and stir every scoop serrated part, and the dental partial evenly distributed on the circumference of a circle so that the scoops work at distances equal time, and says the island that this distribution makes the work of the machine is quieter, and here we are in front of the same the principle of the camshaft in engines and compressors modern. 

The machine's third Islanders were more a development of the legs, as the waterwheel spin here strongly water and not the animal, described the island here machine on a small scale to convince the audience, the viewer sees facility visible vehicle to the side of the water source, and under the established pool down to the water from the source by pipes, there are a series of buckets lift water from the pond, and under the pond there basin hidden contain musical dynamics, and extends within this basin hidden column horizontal, installed on one end Cupboard with cuffs like Bamoarv (Cupboard turbine), and in the floor of the pond hole rushes him to the water and collide Bamoarv causing rotate the wheel, and on the other end of the axis there is serrated head Atahq with serrated horizontal stretches centered top toward established phenomenon, and at the top of this axis latter There are a couple of gears, and riding the wheel carrier chain buckets on the horizontal axis of the serrated vertical, and pour buckets its water to channel the movement of water to its source, and the remaining series buckets perpetual motion as long as the water flows from the land of the pond Mrttma Bamoarv, and in order to entertain viewers, tying axis vertical model of a cow from wood spin axis above the bleached fixed round without touching their legs podium, and it appears to the viewer who does not know the source of the movement as if cow is administered by the waterwheel. 

The machine Islanders fourth-like machine first, but it has been used for the first time in the history of mechanical engineering attachment mechanism and the sliding block (Scotchyoke Mechanism) that convert rotational motion into linear reciprocating motion. 

In the machine fifth, went island on the scope of machines to raise water conventional, as used in this case, the pump absorbent Kabsh of cylinders opposite, be the one to run the suction when the second half of discharge, and use here mechanism of attachment and block sliding, in order to convert rotational motion to reciprocating motion, and gave the driving force of the two methods, one using the turbo wheel with wings, and the second using a rotating wheel with paddles as spin waterwheel. 

And enter the island in this machine several innovations, here we find the oldest application of the principle of double effect in piston machines, as well as the principle of converting rotational motion into reciprocating, and we find here also the first real use of the absorption tubes at the pumps. 

At the Festival of the Islamic world, which was held in Britain in 1976, has offered models of irrigation methods that have been used in Baghdad, in the fourth century of migration, also presented a model of scale Nile at kindergarten at the time of the flood was used at the time of the Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil, and display the latest model to raise the water made ​​as directed by the Badi time island in his above-mentioned, the invented island several machines - as we have seen - has offered his machine to measure the amount of blood taken from the patient, and the invention which impressed viewers and surprise, it is time ringing, a water clock determines the time and progress signals - the performance Dolls - rotation zodiac, and punish the sun and the moon in their sphere permanent permafrost that is not the end of the expiration of his no.

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